Golestan Palace is one of the most awesome monuments in Tehran capital of Iran. Golestan Palace was residence of Qajar kings. It’s located in Panzdah Khordad street and dates back to Safavid era. Safavid kings sometimes liked to stay in Tehran . In fact Safavid founded this palace first time though none of those parts are there any more. After Safavid Dynasty Karimkhan Zand ordered to construct many parts of Golestan Palace 270 years back and these parts till today are survived.
Golestan Complex consists of several mansions and palaces. The most important parts of this complex was built during Qajar time and was Qajar residence also. After Qajar Period, this complex was used by Pahlavi Dynesty till 40 years back.This palace was made of two parts of Andaruni ( inside ) and Biruni (outside).Today only Biruni section is remained. Earlier Andaruni belonged to the women of heram. Qajar kings always had many women in their palace.
Eivan e Takht e Marmar or flat marble torch:
Eivan e Takht e Marmar was built during Agha Mohamad Khan e Qajar and his coronation also was done in this palace. Some parts of this palace was made 300 years back. In fact later Fathali Shah also resided in this palace .He took important decisions for country in this palace. He ordered stone cutters of Isfahan City to make a yellow color marble thrown for himself in 1845 which is made of 65 pieces of marbles.
Hozkhzne mansion is located on ground floor of Talar e Aaj and it was made during Naser od din Shah and was known as Summer Room. The water of Qanat Shahi entered waterfront of the palace and reached to the stone pools of the Golestan Palace on those days.
Aaj Talar or Sofrekhane:
Nasereddin Shah chose this part of Golestan Palace for maintaining precious gifts received by other kings. Later during Reza Shah period they made this hall for the banquet of foreign guests.
A watercolor painting board by Mahmudkhan Malekoshoara is in Golestan Palace which shows the view of Talar e Aaj or Sofrekhane before renovating.
This hall is located in north side of Golestan Palace. It was constructed under supervision of Nasereddin Shah. After visiting museums and galleries in Europe and western countries he decided to establish a similar museum in his Citadel.
Therefore Architecture Hajhasan Memarbashi known as Saniolmolk constructed Talar e Ayne, Sarsara and museum hall next to Talar e Aaj. During Pahlavi period this was used for official ceremonies. The coronation of Mohamad Reza Shah had happened in Talar e Salam.
Talar e Ayene or mirror hall:
Talar e Ayene is a large square hall. Its ceiling and walls are decorated with mirror. This hall is famous not only for great decoration but also for Paintings which is done by Kamalolmolk about 100 years back. Nader Shah also kept his throne which is called Takht e Tavoos in this hall. This throne is made of large number of precious stones. There is sun and two peacocks designed by diamond on top of this magnificent throne.
Mooze Makhsus or special museum:
This mansion is located in the northern side of Golestan Palace and beneath of Talar e Salam which is considered a part of first museum in Iran and it was constructed by famous architect of that time Mohamad Ebrahim khan. In this place all the porcelain and silver vessels which were gifted by other kings were maintained till end of Qajar time. Later during Mohamad Reza Shah they made this hall as a special museum for all the gifted items by other kings.
Some of these important items are armor of Shah Esmaeil Safavid, bow and arrow of Nader Shah Afshar, forearm band and stamp of Fathali Shah Qajar and crown of Aghamohamad Khan Qajar.
Shams ol emare:
After Nasereddin Shah traveled to Europe he decided to make this building which has Persian architecture and European style. This building is made in seven stories and it is known as Khorshid Building too. It was started in 1904 by order of Nasereddin Shah and was designed by Dustali khan Moaiyerolmamalek and the architect was Ostad Alimohamad Kashi. This building was completed within 2 years.
Negarkhane is located north side of Golestan Palace and between Khalvat Karimkhani and Mooze Makhsus. This place is dedicated for presenting valuable paintings of great painters of Qajar period. These paintings reveal the evolution of Iranian paintings during Qajar Dynasty.
Khalvat e Karimkhani:
Khalvat e Karimkhani or Jelokhan was made during Karimkhan Zand Dynasty. It is a large porch in the corner of north west of Golestan Palace. This place was a part of Andaruni of Karimkhan residence earlier with a small stone pool in the center. The pool received water from Qanat e Shahi and same water run in the garden as well. There was a marble bed in this place ( khalvat e Karimkhani) and on the way of Andaruni and Golestan Palace to Divankhane and Marmar Palace. It is reported Nasereddin Shah was found of sitting on this marble bed and smoking water pipe. Some part of khalvate Karimkhani was changed and renovated during Nasereddin Sha’s time.