Mosharraf al Din,bynamed Saadi was born around 1200 in Shiraz city. Little known is his life not even the exact date of his birth However, it is known that he lost his father in early childhood andwas sent to Baghdad to study at the Nezamiyeh College, where he acquired the traditional sciences of the time.
Saadi traveled through many countries, perhaps in an attempt to escape the unsettled conditions prevailing after the Mongol invasion of Iran. He wandered around Anatolia, Syria, Egypt, and Iraq. It is possible that he made the pilgrimage to Mecca. In his works, he refers to his travels in India and Central Asia, but these journeys cannot be confirmed In North Africa he was held captive by the Franks, and was put to work in the trenches of the fortress of Tripoli.
Well might he say of himself and one cannot imagine a better traveler’s motto I have wandered through many regions of the world and everywhere have I mingled with the people. In each corner I have gathered something of good.
When Saadi reap-peared in Shiraz ,He was an eldery man. He seems to have spent the rest of his life there, in a which he built for himself on the spot where his tomb now stands. He died at a very advanced age in 1292.Saadi took his pen name from Saad ibn Zangi.
His best-known works are the poem Bustan (The1257) and the didactic work Golestan The Rose Garden in both prose and verse. Saadi is also remembered as a great lyricist and particularly for his ghazals, in which he is rivaled only by his great Hafez.
Saadi’s golden maxims are highly valued by the Iranians, who consider them treasures of real wisdom. Indeed, the universality of great poet’s words has caused them to be placed in such a faraway setting as the entrance to the Hall of Nations in New York:
Of one Essence is the human race,Thusly has Creation put the Base،One Limb impacted is sufficient,For all Others to feel the Mace.
The mausoleum of Saadi
Saadi passwd away in shiraz,The first mausoleum on the site of Saadi’s burial place was built by his contemporary admirers,and was already standing in 1292. Ibn Batutta gives a detailed account of the memorial during his visit in 1347, fifty-five years after Saadi’s death. The original mausoleum was shattered in an earthquake, and was rebuilt during the rule of Karim Khan Zand, who gave the order to create a large, stately burial chamber for the great poet. Completed in 1773,the new mausoleum was made of bricks, and had two floors. The first floor had two chambers separated by a vestibule, which terminated in a staircase leading to the upper floor. The gravestone of Saadi,protected by a casket of fretted wood, was placed inside the east chamber.
The west room later held the grave of Shurideh,another poet of Shiraz origin. The upper floor also had several rooms, buout of respect for Saadi,no room was constructed above his burial chamber.The Zand structure was rebuilt several times before a new building was create at the site in 1952. It was erected in the middle of a beautiful garden which provides an appropriate resting place for the poet of roses and nightingales.
The current site occupies an area of about 8,000 sq. m. The main building covers 260 sq. m, and 140 sq. m are allocated for the auxiliary structures;the rest of the property is taken up by the garden.On the south side, the mausoleum is dominated by a lofty portico, supported by eight four-sided columns sheathed in layers of pinkish marble, The outer wall of the tomb chamber is decorated with designs in colorful faience,There are two pools,one to the north and another to the south of the entrance area, and still another pool is located opposite the arched passageway. The tomb chamber is crowned by a turquoise dome. Its walls
are faced with tile panels,on which are inscribed selections from Saadi’s works.
A tall marble panel with a carved Nastaliq inscription at the foot of the tombstone gives a brief history of the poet and his mausoleum .Saadi’s tombstone occupies the center of the octagona room. The stone is a replica, which is placed here in lieu of the original tomb stone, broken, which dated from the Atabaka period.
In honor of their beloved poet, the many Iranians who come to pay tribute to him place two fingers on his grave, and recite the first chapter of the Koran in his name.
A passageway with seven tall arches on either side is annexed to Saadi’s burial chamber.At the end of it is a chamber that contains the grave of Shurideh.Saadi’s garden is irrigated by a qanat, which also brings water to an underground fishpond to the west of the poet’s mausoleum.the pond is fool of coin tossed in by people hoping to return to the site the saadis grave remains a place of pilgrimage for all lovers of Persian poetry.