Iran has a rich history and civilization, so United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization has registered several (22 cases) Iranian cultural and natural heritage sites in Iran as a world heritages.In this article we introduce 10 UNESCO Sites in Iran.also we will introduce other 12 remaining UNESCO Sites in Iran in next article.
UNESCO Sites in Iran-number-1
Arg e BAM (Bam citadel)
Arg-e Bam or Bam Citadel is the biggest adobe building in the world,which placed in Krman province in south ast of Iran,192 km far from kerman city and 1180mkm far from Tehran city.it built about 2200 years ago. The citadel is located northeast of Bam city over Tappeh Azarin. It consists of 39 watchtowers and a giant moat and parapet which protected the citadel for centuries. Bam citadel cover an area of 20 hectares. The main building material is made of unbaked brick and clay one enters the citadel through its main gate which used to be a market in the past. Besides, one can see the remains of Sassanid fire temple, a wrestling house, a public bath, barracks and a palace in the Citadel. The houses are closely connected to each other and some are double story buildings. The wrestling house (zoorkhaneh) is made of four portico, and a pit. During the Islamic Period two mosques and a Hosseiniyeh was built in the citadel. The governor’s house is the most important part of Arg-e Bam. It consists of a palace and the governor’s residence. The palace is made of three stories and was the seat of the government.
Potable water in the houses was supplied through wells. was badly devastated by a severe earthquake in 2003.Arg-e Bam has been registered by UNESCO as a world heritage in 2004.
UNESCO Sites in Iran-number-2
Chogha zanbil Ziggurat
Chogha Zanbil ziggurat , constructed about 1250 Bc. is the globally important remains of palace and temple complex of the ancient llamite city of Dur Untashi(Dur Untash) near Susa which has survived from the llamite Period.The complex consists of a magnificent ziggurat (the largest structure of its kind in lran), temples and three palaces. It is one of the few existent ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia. The ziggurat(temple tower), palaces and three enclosures (inner, middle and outer), which originally was 53 m and five stories high, measuring 105 x 105 meters, with its labyrinthine walls is made of thousands of bricks with llamite inscription and has seven gates, which reflects the relegious ideologies of that time. Between the inner and middle walls, several temples dedicated to different flamite divinities were built. The second wall (460 x 420 m) enclosed seven temples and four chapels, it lies approximately 42 km (26 mi) southeast of Dezful 30 km (19 mi) south-east of susa and 80 km (50 mi) north of Ahwaz,and 759 km far from Tehran city. Chogha zanbil Ziggurat has been registered by UNESCO as a world heritage in 1979 as the first UNESCO Sites in Iran.
UNESCO Sites in Iran-number-3
Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System
Shushtar is an island city from the Sassanid era with a complex irrigation system. It was registered on UNESCOs list of World Heritage sites in 2009 and is lran’s 10th cultural heritage site to be registered on the United Nations, list.
shushtar infrastructure included water mills, dams, tunnels and canals, GarGar bridge-dam was built on the watermills and waterfalls. Bolayti canal is situated on the eastern side of the water mills and waterfalls and the functions to supply water from the GarGar bridge to the east side of water mills and channel of the river water in order to prevent the damage to the water mills. Dahaneye Shahr tunnel (city orifice) is one of the three main tunnels which channeled the water from behind the GarGar bridge-dam into the water mill and then run several water mills .seh koreh canal channels the water from behind the GarGar bridge into the western side, In water mills and water falls, there are noticeable mills we can see a perfect model of haltering to run mills.
UNESCO Sites in Iran-number-4
Persepolis is located in Marvdasht 45 km far from Shiraz city and 950 km far from Tehran city.it Plain was constructed during thereign of Darius the Great, Xerex and ArtaXerex the First within a period of 90 years Persepolis was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire in which festivals especially Nowruz was held in the first day of the Persian new year (March21) large groups of representatives of satraps and governorates visited the King in Persepolis and brought dedications Alexander of Macedonia attacked Iran in 330 Bc, burnt persepolis and probably many books and artifacts of the fallen empire Nevertheless the ruins of the capital stand gloriously Märvdasht plain persepolis,1n 1979 registered as a world heritage by UNESCO as a second UNESCO Sites in Iran, was formerly known as Parseh or a Farsi town. The Greek changed it to Persepolis (Persian town), but the complex is called Takht-e Jamshid in Persian language meaning the palace of mythological King Jamshid.The first scientific excavation in Persepolis was carried out by Ernest Herzfeld in 1931 and the result was submitted to the Institute of orient, Chicago University.Read more about Perspolis ,here
Brick tablets in the area say the oldest foundation for Persepolis was laid in the year 512 Bc.
UNESCO Sites in Iran-number-5
Pasargad-cyrus the great Tomb
This complex is located 120 km far from Shiraz city and 830 km far from Tehran city.The tomb of Cyrus the Great was formerly a royal garden and was built by Cyrus himself Thanks to meticulous calculations. the simple monument has survived after 25 centuries nearly intact. The building covers an area of 156 m2 with a height of 11 m. The white alabaster slabs are carefully laid over each other without any mortar, bounded by metal and lead clamps only. The seven story mausoleum is divided into a platform-like staircase serving as the foundation of the mausoleum and the tomb chamber with a sloppy roof. After the death of Cyrus his body was put in a golden coffin and was laid in his tomb along with his personal effects and weapons. The tomb has been respected during the history and Achaemenid kings were crowned in the sacred mausoleum. Since there was no document to prove that it was Cyrus’s tomb during the Islamic period it was called the tomb of Solomon’s mother.
in 2004 Pasargad registered as a world heritage by UNESCO as a sixth UNESCO Sites in Iran.
UNESCO Sites in Iran-number-6
Soltanieh Dome is located in Zanjan province ,44 km far from Zanjan city and 304 km far from Tehran city in west.in 1302 Ac,oljaytou, the Mongol emir instructed his architects to build a giant mausoleum called Soltanieh for his burial. Soltanieh Dome is the third biggest dome in the world and a masterpiece in tile work plasterwork and engravings.It is an octagonal building with eight minaret rising around the dome which is the oldest two-layer dome in Iran. One important feature of the structure is the stone parapet which has been recently unearthed.
In 2005 Soltanieh Dome registered as a world heritage by UNESCO as a seventh UNESCO Sites in Iran.
UNESCO Sites in Iran-number-7
Sheikh Safi-ad-din Ardabili Complex
Sheikh Safi-ad-din Ardabili Complex is locatd in Ardabil city 592 km far from Tehran city in northwest of iran,a world heritage site comprising of a mausoleums of Sheikh Safi and Shah Ismaeel Chini khaneg (house of chinaware), a mosque, Jannat Sara(paradise), Khanaqah (the house of dervishes), Cheragh Khaneh (the house of lamps), Shahid khaneh (the house of martyrs) and Chelleh Khaneh(the place where devotees shut themselves up during the forty days of Lent). The mausoleum of Sheikh Safi has an octagonal interior,
In 2010 Sheikh Safi-ad-din Ardabili Complex registered as a world heritage by UNESCO as a 12th UNESCO Sites in Iran.
UNESCO Sites in Iran-number-8
Saint Stepanos Monastery is located in east Azerbaijan province 140 km far from Tabriz city and 760 km far from Tehran city in north est part of Iran.Saint Stepanos Monastery is an Armenian monastery which founded by Saint Bartholomew the Apostle around AD62. The now abandoned monastery is surrounded by a huge stone wall.
St.Stepanos is believed to be the first Christian martyr.The monastery employs a mixture of Urartu Parthian,Greek and Roman architectural styles popularly known as Armenian architecture. The church is capped by a belfry, a prayer hall Daniel’s Chamber and neighbors and ancient Zoroastrian fire temple.
In 2008 Saint Stepanos Monastery registered as a world heritage by UNESCO as a 9th UNESCO Sites in Iran.
UNESCO Sites in Iran-number-9
Golestan palace is One of the oldest buildings in Tehran which was founded by Shah Tahmaseb Safavid king in 1530. during the 17th century, Nasseredin Shah completely changed and expanded the palace.The domes, the vaults, the columns and the decorations of the ceilings are imitation of foreign architecture among which the Diamond Hall is a good example.Golestan Palace contains Shamsolemareh Palace,the Government Building, the Museum Hall, the Harem, the White Palace and the Hall of Audience.The museum is a large hall consisting of a middle arch and several corridors with a decorated parlor and big chandeliers hanging from the ceiling. The Mirror Hall was built in lunar year 1291 (8thcentury) and was decorated by mirrors and very fine paintings from Kamalolmolk. About the end of his reign Nasseredin Shah constructed a new palace to store the gifts which had been presented to him. It was converted to museum of anthropology in 1968. The Karimkhani Arg or veranda, the gallery, the ho (the pond), Chamber of Tents, Golestan Palace Garden, planted with plane trees and ornamental bushes, Shamsolemareh Palace was built by Nasseredin Shah east of the Royal Citadel in 1867. The apartments of the palace are decorated by western styles but the inside and outside is decorated by Iranian traditional architecture. Howzkhaneh Negarestan.
1n 2013 Golestan palace Complex registered as a world heritage by UNESCO as a 16th UNESCO Sites in Iran.
Gonbad-e Kavus (Kavus Tower) in a town of the same name is the tallest brick tower in the world, unrivaled in workmanship during post-Islamic period. Kavus Tower was built by Ale Ziyar Dynasty 3 km away from historical Gorgan town, the seat of Ale Ziyar Dynasty, and is a remnant of the glory of that family in the lranian history. Bedside housing the tomb of Kavus the lofty and imposing structure served as watchtower to help travelers and caravans.
The Tower was constructed in 1007 with an elevation of 55 m and is divided into a base and conical dome. The outside facing of the body is dented at 10 points and embellished by Kufi script It Was built by Qaboos, of Voshm gir .In 2012 Gonbad-e Kavus registered as a world heritage by UNESCO as a 15th UNESCO Sites in Iran.see also Iran tours -UNESCO sites.